得一忘二 ⊙ 水的雕像

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[清]黄景仁诗4首英译并记

◎得一忘二



       黄景仁诗4首英译并记

About the author诗人简介:
  黄景仁(1749-1783),字仲则,江苏常州武进人,自称是黄庭坚后人,祖籍江西,
南渡后安家武进。四岁丧父,九岁写出“江头一夜雨,楼上五更寒”的佳句。十六岁童
子试,三千人中名列第一。十九岁娶赵氏。其后为了养家,坎坷颠沛一生。二十三岁本可
随安徽学政朱筠去京,但因母老未能同行;二十八岁,乾隆四十一年(1776),遂各省士
子去天津献诗,考取二等,获授小官,随接家眷到北京。无奈俸禄太低,无法养家,三
十二岁将家眷送回南方。三十五岁,想投靠陕西巡抚,体弱多病的他却在运城病故,随
身衣物典当一尽,只有零篇断章狼藉几案。
  Huang Jingren (1749-1783), with a style name of Zhongze, was a resident
of Wujin, Jiangsu. Huang Jingren said that his family were descendants from the
great poet calligrapher Huang Tingjian (1045-1105) in Song Dynasty. He was orphaned
at 4, and had reportedly written a couplet "one night rain in the river,
fifth watch coldness on the pavilion" at nine. He took the lowest imperial
examination at 16 and was the first among 3000 examinee. At 19 he married
a girl from Zhao family, and from then he travelled to various parts of China
to seek offices in order to support his family. At 28, in the 41st year of Qianlong
Reign (1776), he was judged as the second for the nationwide competition,
and then he was granted a low rank office in the capital in Beijing. However,
when the family joined him, he found the salary was too meager. Four years
later, he had to send his family back to the hometown. In 1783, he tried
to join Shannxi Provincial governor in Xi'an, but fell ill in Yuncheng Shanxi.
He died a premature death at 35.

第一首:
  《少年行》
    黄景仁
男儿作健向沙场,自爱登台不望乡。
太白高高天尺五,宝刀明月共辉光。

注释:
乾隆三十一年(1766年)冬,十八岁的诗人离家,到扬州游学。这是诗人旅途所作。
作健:用典自古乐府《企喻歌》:男儿欲作健,结伴不须多。
台:指单于台,在今内蒙古呼和浩特市西。在此用典《资治通鉴•汉纪》,汉武帝元封
元年(前110年)“出长城,北登单于台”。登台指古代征人久戍不归,登高怀念家乡。
太白,是秦岭主峰,山顶终年积雪不化。


  Song of a Youth
        HUANG Jingren (1749-1783 Qing Dynasty)
A man should be valorous and gallant,
Always ready for the battlefield;
His passion for climbing is never
To be squandered on the ache for hearth.
Five feet more, the Ethereal Blanc Mount
Will touch the sky, and he, atop there,
Alone, marvels at his precious sword
That shines cold under the moonlight.

Back-Translation回译:
  青年的歌
男人,应该勇武、豪侠,
随时准备上战场。
他热衷于登高,这激情
绝不浪费于家居生活。
这太白山再高五尺
就会碰到天空,而他
独立其上,把玩宝剑,
欣赏它在月下闪着寒光。


第二首:
  《秋夕》
   [清] 黄景仁 (1749-1783)
桂堂寂寂漏声迟,一种秋怀两地知。
羡儿女牛逢隔岁,为谁风露立多时?
心如莲子常含苦,愁似春蚕未断丝。
判逐幽兰共颓化,此生无分了相思。


  Autumn Night
     Huang Jingren (1749-1783 Qing Dynasty)
Empty, empty is the cassia hall,
where the water clock becomes stagnant,
and we, separated, know
the same autumn heart and bosom.
Oh, how happy you are, heavenly lovers,
Able to meet once a year, but for whom
do I stand alone, deep into the dewy night?

My heart is a lotus seed,
growing a bitter core,
my sorrow, a spring silkworm
wrapped in unbreakable threads.
The secluded orchid flowers have withered
before I could give up, and in this life
no way have we to ease the ache for love.


Allusions用典:
  The allusion of "cassia hall" is from one of Li Shangyin's untitled poem,
which reads "Last night's star, last night's wind, west of the painted pavilion,
east of the cassia hall."
  The allusion of "spring silkworm" is from another of Li Shangyin's untitled
poem, which reads "The spring silkworm's thread will only end when death
comes; the candle will dry its tears until it turns to ashes."
  The word "lotus seed" is pronounced the same as "dote on you," which
becomes popular since the Music Bureau. And the lotus seed is then a metaphor
for the bitterness in a heart.
桂堂:用典自李商隐《无题》:“昨夜星辰昨夜风,花楼西畔桂堂东”。
春蚕:用典自李商隐《无题》:“春蚕到死丝方尽,蜡炬成灰泪始干”。
莲子:自南朝乐府开始便常谐音“怜子”,以莲心喻人心之苦。
判:同“拼”,指舍弃、不顾惜。

Back-translation into Contemporary Chinese回译成现代汉语:
  秋夜
空寂,空寂的桂堂中,
水漏变得迟滞,
相隔两地,我们体会的是
同一种秋怀秋心。
啊,你们多么幸福啊,天上的情侣,
一年还能得以一见,但是又是为谁
我独自伫立,在含露的深夜?

我的心是一粒莲子,
长了一颗苦心,
我的悲愁是春蚕一只,
裹缠着难以割断的丝线。
那幽隐的兰花已经凋谢
在我放弃之前,可这一生
我们有何能耐抚慰爱情之痛。


第三首:

  《岁暮怀人》(二十之一)
打窗冻雨剪灯风,拥鼻吟残地火红。
寥落故人谁得似,晓天星影暮天鸿。

  At the Year-End, Missing Friends
           Huang Jingren (1749-1783 Qing Dynasty)
Icy rain flogs the window, and wind snakes in,
Scissoring the flame heart of the lamp into unstable forks.
I try a deep voice on a new poem in the flickering fire from the earthen pan,
To see whether I myself can be moved.
At this hour, to what can I compare my loved friends?
Scattered stars in the morning, wild geese fading at dusk.

Back-translation into Contemporary Chinese 现代汉语回译:
   年末怀念友人
冰冷的雨抽打窗子,
风潜入屋里,将油灯的火心剪裂了,摇曳不定。
地炉的火苗或高或低,我试着用低沉的嗓音吟诵一首新诗,
看看我自己是否能被打动。
在这样的时辰,我能将我的好友们比作什么?
清晨寥落的星星,在黄昏暗淡的雁影。

Note:
  In the 44th year of Qianlong Reign (1779), when Huang Jingren was in Beijing
as a low-rank official for about a few years, he wrote a group of twenty
poems. The first one should be read as an opening piece, which was not addressed
to any particular one, while each of the rest was written for a specific
friend or teacher.
  The allusion of 拥鼻吟 pinching the nostrils to recite a poem refers to
a story in Jin Chronicles. There was a poet called Xie An谢安, whose recitation
of poems was very touching. It turned out that he had an ailment of nose, and
his voice was quite nasal. Therefore, many people tried to pinch their noses to
imitate him. And Ouyang Xiu 欧阳修 once wrote a line "one guest pinches his nose
to recite the bitter coldness of the poem." Therefore, the allusion used here
is to suggest the emotional power of the poem.
  拥鼻吟,说的是《晋书 •列传第四十九•谢安》所记故事。谢安吟诵诗文效果非常好,
因为他的鼻子有病,所以声音浑厚低沉。时人为了模仿他,故意捏着鼻子。欧阳修曾有诗
句:有客拥鼻吟苦寒。因此,拥鼻吟只要意指诗歌的情感浓度。


第四首:
  《岁暮怀人》(二十之十二)
绝忆君家草堂月,往来帆影动帘纹。
知君五载杭州住,一梦西湖一见君。

I miss most the moonlight creeping in to your thatched house;
By the lake, there are shadows of sails moving
On the bamboo curtains.
I learn you have been living in Hangzhou for five years,
Therefore, every time I dream, I dream of the West Lake,
And that is how I see you.

Back-translation into Contemporary Chinese 现代汉语回译:
我最怀念那月光,蔓延进入你的草屋,
湖边,有船帆的影子移动
在你家的竹帘上。
我得知你已经在杭州住了五年了,
所以我每次做梦,我都梦见西湖,
我就是这样才见到你。

I like the juxtaposition of the sail shadows and the curtain patterns. Obviously,
we can assume that the patterns on the curtains are not a landscape into which
the sails can be well integrated. Therefore, the different times and spaces
create apparent confliction in the visual effect, but it is this superimposition
that represents quite stunningly the dream-effect. In order to highlight
this
contrast, I translate the curtain into bamboo curtain, which was very probable.
我最喜欢这首诗中的第二句。我们显然可以假定帘子上的图案不可能刚好就是山水风景,
而船帆的影子刚好能够有机地融进去,因此这就产生了一种看似矛盾的视觉图像。船帆在
不该出现的空间出现了。 因此我将帘子翻译成了竹帘,是为了突出这种矛盾并置。这
种视觉的矛盾恰恰能够最大程度地表现出一种梦幻感,而这正是整首诗的旨趣所在。





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