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◎ 神奇的南通板鹞风筝(作者:吉华|译者:王雪飞) (阅读936次)



Wonderful Nantong Plane-Kite


 一、板鹞款式的文化思想 
I. Cultural meaning of the kite styles

 
式样丰富的风筝品种之中,方块六角星模样,便是南通板鹞风筝的主流款式形态,由竖向长方块与对角正方块组成,称为“六角板鹞”。六角星当中的红芯圆代表太阳,六个深颜色星角,代表朝六个方向发射的驱邪法器,白底色代表天空。六角星鹞体款式,是南通先民们驱邪镇妖的图腾,而且是能够放飞到天上的图腾,祈望风调雨顺,天下太平。以六角星为单元,可以演变出七连星、十九连星等,但基本款式制度是六角星。原生态的六角星,是纯红色的圆芯与纯黑色的星角。随着先民们审美品位的提升,六个星角的颜色也变得丰富多彩,再也不是固定的黑色,并且开始在圆芯与六角上彩绘神话故事,以增强六角板鹞的驱邪法力与美术效果。由十九枚六角板鹞图形构成的“十九连星”板鹞,鹞身上设有二十八个大洞眼,其洞眼的总面积占整个鹞身面积的31%,照样能够挂满哨口飞上蓝天。这是一件证明南通先民拥有驾驭复杂空气动力智慧的精典之作,是传承至今的所有板鹞款式之中的技术极品。
 
 
 
Among the rich assortment of kites, a Nantong-style plane kite is mainly hexagonal of which the frame is made up of a longitudinal rectangle and a diagonal square. Therefore, it is called the hexagonal plane kite or simply the hexagonal star with a red heart representing the Sun and six pointing angles in dark color representing six magic weapons against evil spirit in six directions. But the white undertone symbolizes the sky. The hexagonal-star kite had been the ancient totem of the local people for peace, good luck and exorcism against bad evil spirits and bad weather.  With the hexagon as the unit, it is possible to form a seven-star kite and even a nineteen-star kite. The basic kite pattern is a hexagon with a red round core and six black star-deltas. Due to the ancestors’ enhancement of esthetic taste, the six star-deltas became much more colorful in stead of being black all the time. Beside that myth paintings have been adding to the round core and the six star-deltas as to increase the exorcist might and art effect of the star-deltas. The nineteen-star kite with 19 hexagonal stars as well as 28 holes whose accumulated area as much as 31% of the surface area of the entire kite which is still able to take off with many large and small whistles. This is an excellent piece of work as an evidence of the wise ancestors who had mastered the complicated knowledge about aerodynamics and tough tricks for kite fabrication.
 
二、板鹞的由来与放飞形态
II. Origin of hard-wing kites and way of kite-flying
南通板鹞风筝,始于北宋,兴盛于农耕社会,传承至当代,已有千年的历史。南通板鹞风筝,简称“板鹞风筝”或“板鹞”,俗称“鹞子”。板鹞上所装载的能够迎风发出声音的物件,称为板鹞哨口,简称“哨口”。哨口还细分为“振荡主哨”、“嗡声”、“葫芦口”、“竹哨”等等。南通地处江海之滨,一马平川,多大风,尤其是多东南风,适宜放飞重型板子类风筝。而且,放鹞子原本就是南通先民们生活内容的一部分。先民们祈求上苍消灾要放鹞子,通报天空气象情况要放鹞子,庆祝丰收和健身娱乐也要放鹞子。放鹞子,与人们的生产、生活紧密联系在一起。板鹞上装载的哨口,在放飞时迎风发出美妙的响声,代表着放鹞子人的思想心声。哨口的声音,既是驱邪的威慑之声,又是愤怒的呐喊、激情的歌唱和喜庆的天空交响乐章。板鹞放飞,携带“鹞背”平衡飞行升力。鹞背,是系在鹞体下方的两根特制的草绳。要求草绳的上劲方向各为一正一反,必须搓成上粗下细的超长鞭状,长度为板鹞身高的二十倍左右,并要求采用质地蓬松柔软的莆草作原材料。放飞时,鹞背成为板鹞的超大软体平衡器官,如同注入了生命,鲜活灵动。侧看,鹞背像两条飞天的长蛇,凌空漫舞,杀气腾腾。而从正面朝天上看,鹞背八字形叉开,像腾空而起的丰碑,鹞子则被高举在丰碑的顶端,展现出高风亮节的神采。依赖自身平板子形状鹞体产生运动升力;全身挂满哨口响亮的飞向蓝天;身后拖着两根精致的长草绳,随着哨口发出的响声而威风自大地八字形叉开与漫舞。如此三项齐备,就是南通板鹞标准的放飞形态。
The Nantong-style plate kite, which came into being as early as in Song Dynasty and became popular in the farming society, enjoys a history for more than a thousand years. It is also known as the rigid-wing plate kite or “banyao”(plate kite) or simply called “yaozi”.  The acoustic articles fixed to the kite are called the kite whistles or simply whistles such as the key-note whistles, the buzzers, the gourd-mouths and the bamboo whistles, etc. Nantong, being located beside the Yangtze River and the Yellow Sea, is endowed with a vast piece of flat land where the strong wind especially the southeast wind is good for flying large and heavy hard-frame kites, which itself has long been one part of life for the ancient people in Nantong. They would fly kites in case of asking heaven to ward off evil, reporting meteorological conditions, celebrating bumper harvest or simply for the purpose of fitness and entertainment. Kite flying activity is closely linked to production and life of the people. The melodious sound of the kite whistles represents the feeling and heartfelt wishes of the kite owner and flyer. The sound could be the deterrence against the evil spirits, the indignant scream, the excited singing and the joyful symphony in the sky. It is important to keep balance with a pair of tails for kite to fly high and stable in the sky. The tails are actually the two straw ropes tied to the lower portion of the kite. Usually the twist of one rope should be made in such a direction that differs from that of the other rope. Each rope should be made of calamus straw in the shape of a whip in such a length that is approximately twenty times of the height of the kite body. The kite tails as the soft balance organ with flexibility and vitality when the kite is taken off. The side view of the tails would look like two ferocious snakes flying in the sky but the overturned point of view of the splayed tails from the front would remind you of an awe-inspiring obelisk with the kite atop.     The standard form of the Nantong-style kite in the sky has such three typical features: (1) The hard and flat kite body in the air which produces the upward force automatically; (2) The whistles all over the kite which issues exciting sound in the blue sky; (3) The pair of long splaying ropes behind the kite which add romantic atmosphere in addition to the sound of whistles. 
 
三、板鹞安全放飞的引线角度
III. The angle of the launching lead for safe kiting
身高一米以上的板鹞,通常设置十一根放飞引线。引线的制式长度,与鹞子身高相同。上排引线与鹞子表面之间的夹角,是鹞子放飞升空的角度,称为“引线飞角”。引线飞角的安全角度,为九十六度(可正负一度)。角度若小于九十五度,鹞子兜风量过大,排风不畅,在风力增大的情况下,鹞子会可怕的朝上狂奔,当奔到再也奔不上去的极限(放飞线与地平线之间的夹角七十度左右)时,鹞子会接着不停的左右摇摆,而且摇摆的幅度迅速增大,直至把鹞子从天上一头栽落到地上。迫使放鹞子的人准备两副鹞背,即小风用轻背,大风用重背。飞角若大于九十七度,鹞子因兜风量过小,容易从天上掉落。只有九十六度左右的引线飞角最适中,能够使鹞子大风不摇,小风不掉。而且,无论风大风小,放鹞子只需要使用同一副鹞背。
The kite is more than 1 meter in height and each of the 11 launching leads is as long as the height of the kite. The angle between the upper row of the launching leads and the kite surface is the launching angle for the kite defined as “the flying angle of the launching leads”. The safe flying angle should be 96°(±1°). If the angle is less than 95°, the kite would catch too much air with inadequate ventilation and, in case of rapid increase of wind, the kite would go upward violently and keep swaying in bigger and bigger range. Once exceeding the limit ( when the angle between launching leads and the horizon has reached 70°), the kite would even tumble or crash to the ground. Two sets of tails have to be ready then, i.e. the light set of tails for the small wind and the heavy for the strong wind. If the angle is more than 97°, the air caught by the kite would be too little to keep the kite from dropping off. The optimized flying angle for the launching leads is approximately 96°,which would ensure the kite without swaying in strong wind or dropping in small wind. And it is sufficient to use the same set off tails regardless of the wind force.
板鹞上所设置的十一根引线之中,位于外边四个角上的引线,是形成引线飞角的四根主力引线,称为“飞角引线”。飞角引线的功能,不但决定鹞子放飞角度的大小,也决定着鹞子在天上的迎风面是否平行对称。余下的七根引线,是产生均衡兜风功能的辅助引线。鹞子的驼线形式与驼线深度,完全通过调节这七根引线来实施。鹞子驼线的安全深度,以不超过上下两根主引线之间距离数值的0.6%为宜,只要能使鹞子的整个平面兜到风、每根辅助引线都能均衡担到力,即可。如果驼线过深,同样会给鹞子造成排风不畅的问题。
Of the eleven leading lines in total set for a kite, the four main leading lines, which are connected to the four corners of the kite, are called “flying-angle leads” having such functions of determining the launching angle and maintaining the balance and symmetry of the kite in the air. The other seven lines are the assisting lines to proportionate the air caught by the kite. The cupping depth and form for the kite catching the air are regulated by these seven lines. It is safe for the cupping depth not to exceed 0.6% of the distance between the two main lines (i.e. the upper and down). In another word, it is all right so long as the entire plane is able to catch the air and all the assisting lines can bear the wind force equally and evenly. If the cupping depth is too much, it would be smooth for the kite to ventilate which is also a problem.
处在鹞子十字中心点上的“中引线”,很容易被当作主引线看待。其实,只有在超小板鹞上仅仅设置三根引线的情况下,中引线才能成为主引线之一,除此例之外,中引线只能属于辅助引线。
The central line from the kite center is quite possible to be regarded as the main lead. In fact, the central line could become one of the main leads only when altogether three leading lines are set in case of a very small kite. Otherwise, the central line can be regarded as one of the assisting lines only.
 
四、哨口是板鹞的艺术灵魂
IV. The whistle is the artistic soul for a plate-kite
每只板鹞上的哨口响声风格,大多由放鹞子的人自主设定。自主设计,是放鹞子的人不愿放弃的第一乐趣。偏爱响声高吭轰鸣者,惯用八尺(296公分)以上的大鹞体,特制脸盆大的振荡主哨和洗脚盆大的嗡声,选用海碗粗的尾排和声哨口。喜脆响通灵似铜锣声音者,则扎制两尺(74公分)左右的小板鹞,采用鹅蛋大小的袖珍主哨,配置直径两公分以内的微型葫芦口或更细小的竹哨。哨口是板鹞的艺术灵魂,而振荡主哨则是哨口中的灵魂。要求振荡主哨的点子清楚,音量饱满,音色鲜明。在齐声混响的哨口声音之中,主哨所发出的隆隆振荡音律,恰似威严的领奏,使混响产生出和谐的音色美与拥有节奏旋律的音乐之美!板鹞风筝的神奇亮点,就在于哨口的响声早已发展成具有完美韵律的音乐,就在于板鹞拥有成熟的哨口音乐文化。追求哨口齐声混响的声势与声威,追求在混响中产生音乐美,是哨口音乐文化的主流思想。而注重哨口质量五美(款式设计美、选材配料美、制作工艺美、响声品质美、挂装排列美),则是板鹞制作的核心技术部分。凡是放鹞子讲究品位的人,都会全面关注哨口质量的“五美”。板鹞一旦离开了哨口,它那气吞山河的雄姿神采将立马荡然无存。千百年来,南通人追求提升板鹞品位而要做的头等大事,就是在哨口上下功夫。
The acoustic style of whistles for a kite can be decided by the kite flyer for whom the first fun he would be reluctant to give up is the independent design. Those who love the high-pitch and roaring sound used to fly a giant kite of a size above 296cm with the main whistles as large as the wash basin and the harmony whistles in the last row as big as the large bowl. Those who are fond of crisp sound would fabricate small kites (74cm) with the main whistles as large as the goose egg and gourd or bamboo whistles less than 2cm in diameter. The whistle is the artistic soul for the plate-kite but the key drumming whistle is the soul of souls. The key whistles are expected to have clear drums, full volume and distinctive timbre. Amid the mixed sound of whistles, the oscillation temperament of the key drumming whistles is just like the leading player for a concerto so as to ensure musical sweetness, harmony and beauty. The magic splendor of a plate kite lies in such a way that the sound of whistles has long been developed into perfect music and the mature whistle music culture has taken shape for a plate-kite. The mainstream idea of the whistle music culture is to pursue the momentum of the mixed sound of whistles as well as the beauty of music. The core technology in fabricating the plate-kite is none other than attaching importance to whistle quality in five aspects, i.e. nice design, nice choice of material, nice craftsmanship, nice sound and nice arrangement of whistles on the kite, which can be summarized as “the five niceties”. Whoever pays attention to the taste of a kite would give full attention to “the five niceties” of the whistle quality. Once a plate-kite is deprived of whistles, there would be no more majestic look. Therefore, it has been a matter of prime importance for thousands of years to upgrade the kite by improving the whistles.   
 
五、板鹞放天风的美妙境界
V. Wonderful realm for “playing the sky wind” with the plate-kite
所谓天风,就是地面上没有风,而在一百五十米以上的高空,出现了速度稳定的强气流。这种高空强气流,被放鹞子的人称为“天风”。  放天风,就是把鹞子送上高空强气流层。高空强气流的风力,达到五级或六级,而西南风向的高空强气流有时竟能达到七级风力。在放鹞子的人眼里,东南风向的高空强气流为“上品”。
The so-called “sky wind” means that there is strong airflow at the altitude of more than 150m although no wind is felt on the ground. The kite flyers used to name such high-level strong airflow “the sky wind”. By “playing the sky wind”, it is actually to send the kite into the high-level strong airflow with force 5, 6 or even 7. The southeast wind is regarded the top-grade airflow by the kite flyers.
在没有高楼大厦、也没有广播与电视的纯农耕时代,只要遇上好的东南风,放鹞子的人一定会逮住好风不放过,有时甚至会在夜里不约而同的起床“放天风”。夜里放天风,就是夜里摸黑在田野里放鹞子。放鹞子的人不仅要有夜里不怕鬼的胆气,还必须要用百米赛跑的飞奔速度,把鹞子送上天风层。没有飞奔级的跑速,就不能把鹞子滑翔上天。鹞子一旦进入天风层,哨口响声大作,持久不息。放天风,是放鹞子的最高技术境界,也是品味鹞子上哨口响声质量的最好时光。东南风向的天风,是放鹞子的人一致公认的上等天风,风向与风力稳定,鹞子就像被挂在天上一样,丝毫不动,安全可靠,而且天风持续的时间长达一夜,能够让人过足放鹞子的瘾。在美好的天风时段里,整个南通地区(八千平方公里国土、七百八十万人口)的上空放飞着约三十万只数量的板鹞风筝,以每只鹞子上装两百只哨口计算,天上就有六千万只哨口在同时发出轰鸣的响声,其中还有三十万对主哨在发出声浪涛天的激情领奏,其声势声威,惊天动地,气吞山河!此时此刻,放鹞子的人会认为自己是世界上最快乐的人,会感觉到自己与天地已经完全融为一体,而他的灵魂早已飞进了天风层,正在忘形的品评着每只鹞子上的哨口响声质量。在人类世界上,唯独南通板鹞拥有如此神奇的“天空交响”功能。由此可见,南通先民们拥有驾驭大自然力量的高超智慧和尖端手工技术。
 As early as in the agrarian age when there was no high-rise building, radio or TV, if the kite flyers came across the favorable southeast wind, they were sure to seize the opportunity to “play the sky wind” even would coincidentally get up late at night for that same purpose. To “play the sky wind” at night is to fly kite in the dark fields. The kite flyer must not only be brave without fearing the ghost but also be as fast as a sprinter to send the kite up to the sky wind. The kite would fail to enter the layer of sky wind unless the flyer is fast enough like a 100m racer. Once the kite enters the layer of sky wind, the whistles would burst into a lasting chorus. Playing the sky wind is the lofty realm for kite flying and also the best time to appreciate the sound of whistles on the kite. The southeast wind in the sky is excellent sky wind unanimously acknowledged by the kite flyers simply because the wind direction and force are stable so that the kite could be safe and steadfast as if being hung there in the sky.Beside that, the lasting time for the sky wind is usually one night, the kite flyer can have the pleasure to his heart’s content. During the windy period, there would be approximately 300,000 kites in the sky over 8000sq.km. of the whole Nantong area. For example, if one kite has 200 whistles, then there would be 60,000,000 resounding whistles in the sky including 300,000 pairs of the lead-player key whistles. Wow, what a majestic power and momentum that would shake heaven and earth with a spirit to conquer mountains and rivers! At that moment, the kite flyer would consider himself the happiest person in the world feeling himself totally integrated with the universe while his soul has flown into the sky making comments to the acoustic quality of those whistles on each kite. In the human world, on the Nantong plate-kite has such a magnificent function known as “symphony in the sky”. This shows that the local ancestors had grasped the super wisdom and sophisticated manual technique to tame the nature.

六、板鹞传承千年的原因
VI. The reason for the plate-kite that have been inherited for a millennium
板鹞,对于人们的衣食住行没有直接的帮助作用,为什么还能传承千年而不消亡?因为板鹞是人们表达精神活动的载体,板鹞上的哨口响声,代表人们的喜、怒、哀、乐的心声,放鹞子就是在放飞人的心声,放飞痛苦,也放飞欢乐,放飞期望,也放飞收获与庆典。而且,在放鹞子的人眼里,他不是在简单的放鹞子,而是在充分自由地发挥想象力与创造力,每一次的放飞,都是对原创设计能力和制作工艺水准的亲自检验。每放飞一次,不仅收获放飞的快乐,而且还可能产生新的技术觉悟或新的创作方案。放鹞子的人,就是在循环往复的觉悟与创作过程中放飞理想,享受快乐。而且,大多数放鹞子的人热衷于亲自动脑设计板鹞和亲自动手制作板鹞,而不喜欢购买成品。板鹞,成为人们施展创造能力的平台,成为表达人的思想情感的载体。正是由于板鹞风筝对人的精神生活能够产生巨大的正面作用,所以自然地吸引着一代代后人自觉的传承和发展板鹞制作技艺与板鹞放飞运动。
Why the plate-kite has been handed down from the past generations for more a thousand years instead of being lost since it has no direct help to the human being as far as the basic necessities of life are concerned? Because the kite is the carrier for the people to express their happiness, anger, sadness and joy by way of the whistles thereupon. To fly a kite is to launch one’s heartfelt wishes, release one’s weal and woe, as well as celebrate the harvest.In the eyes of a kite flyer, he is not merely flying a kite, but is giving full plat to his imagination and creativity because each flight is a test on his own originality and craftsmanship. By so doing every time, it is not only possible for him to taste the delight in a kite flying, but also possible to have a fresh awareness or a new creative concept. A kite flyer is expressing his ideals and have fun in the process of constant creation and realization. Most kite flyers are fond of designing and fabricate the kite rather than buying the finished product. The plate kite is a medium for one to give play to his creative ability and express his feelings and ideas. It is simply because the kite has positive effect to man for his cultural life that it is quite natural for kite fabricating and flying to have been inherited and promoted generation after generation voluntarily and consciously.

七、板鹞仍然兴旺的现状
VII. The current situation for the still prosperous plate-kites
目前南通地区,仍然保有约二十万人的板鹞放飞运动,仍有数以万计的板鹞制作技艺高手。涌现出一大批自觉传承板鹞制作与放飞的风云人物:陆宝如、陆汉德、郭承毅、郭承恺、王志祥、任遂生、王泽君、黄志灵、陆松山、张文智、高则先、葛文泉、李育林、王志清、徐振熙、施顾华、于海涛、姚春华、吴小军、徐俊华、朱军、汤志良、刘志岗、陆晓荣、宗广明、包金书、张栋明、崔炜、方柱华、吉华等。
他们的作品和足迹,遍布国内外一百二十个地区。他们参加作品展览和放飞竞赛活动共计三百多场次,荣获各类奖项四百八十枚。先后有一百多家中外主流媒体,纷纷采访报导他们传承、传播南通板鹞文化技艺的鲜活事迹。有正式对外挂牌的板鹞藏馆六家,有带有经营性质的板鹞作坊二十余家,有市、区(县)两级风筝协会组织,民间还有几百支常备的板鹞放飞表演队伍。南通地区的各级政府经常举办形式多样的板鹞展研与放飞竞赛活动,并且支持板鹞出省、出国参展参赛。南通板鹞,在国内外影响极大,好评如潮。国家中央政府对南通板鹞非常重视,将其列入首批国家级非物质文化遗产保护名录。南通的板鹞传人们,非常感激国家对南通板鹞风筝的重视与保护,纷纷表示,将会更加努力做好保护传承板鹞风筝文化技艺的工作。
In Nantong, there are still 200,000 kite-flying fans and nearly 10,000 kite manufacturers at present. Lu Baoru, Lu Hande, Guo Chengyi, Guo Chengkai, Wang Zhixiang, Ren Suisheng, Wang Zejun, Huang Zhiling, Lu Songshan, Zhang Wenzhi, Gao Zexian, Ge Wenquan, Li Yulin, Wang Zhiqing, Xu Zhenxi, Shi Guhua, Yu Haitao, Yao Chunhua, Wu Xiaojun, Xu Junhua, Zhu Jun, Tang Zhiliang, Liu Zhigang, Lu Xiaorong, Zong Guangming, Bao Jinshu, Zhang Dongming, Cui Wei, Fang Zhuhua and Ji Hua are the brilliant representatives of the kite masters today. Their works and footprints have covered one hundred and twenty regions at home and abroad. 480 medals and prizes were awarded to them after they participated more than kite exhibitions and flying activities. More than a hundred Chinese and foreign mainstream media reported on their deeds and events in inheriting and disseminating the kite culture and handicrafts.  So far there are 6 kite museums, 20 kite workshops and hundreds of kite flying teams as well as the kite associations in the municipal and county levels.With gratitude and responsibility in their mind, the kite culture inheritors are determined to make greater effort and work better in protect and promote the Nantong plate-kite culture and technology. The Nantong-style plate kite has won great reputation and nice recognition at home and abroad. The Nantong kite has been included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage protection list by the central government which has attached great importance to it. 
 


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