首页 翻译专栏 管理入口 作者信箱 留言板 >


 
◎ 花园 [英]马维尔 (阅读1769次)



花    园 [英]马维尔
曹明伦
 
安德鲁·马维尔(Andrew Marvell, 1621–1678),英国玄学派诗人,出身于教士家庭,毕业于剑桥大学,英国资产阶级革命时期站在国会军一边,担任过共和国拉丁文秘书弥尔顿的助手,后当选为国会议员,王政复辟后,继续当选议员,并先后在英国驻俄国、丹麦、瑞典等国使馆任过职。他一生写有哲理诗、抒情诗、赞美诗及讽刺诗共50余首。另著有散文若干。
 
     花  园                       The Garden
        1                             1
世人是多么无益地神经错乱      How vainly men themselves amaze
去博取棕榈、橡叶和桂冠;①       To win the palm, the oak, or bays;
他们无休止的辛劳只得到              And their uncessant labors see
借以炫耀的草木的枝条;              Crowned from some single herb or tree,
枝条那又短又窄的阴影                  Whose short and narrow-vergèd shade
实堪责备世人徒劳的艰辛,           Does prudently their toils upbraid;
而大千世界的树丛花园                  While all the flowers and trees do close
正交织成宁静的花环花冠。           To weave the garlands of repose

        2                             2
我找到了你哟,美妙的宁静,      Fair Quiet, have I found thee here,
还有与你亲如姊妹的纯真!            And Innocence, thy sister dear!
长久以来我一直找错地方,            Mistaken long, I sought you then
竟在忙碌的人群中寻觅你俩。         In busy companies of men:
你们神圣的花木若长在人间,         Your sacred plants, if here below,
只有在这大自然中才能繁衍。         Only among the plants will grow;
与这美妙的幽静孤寂相比,            Society is all but rude,
文明社会近乎是蛮荒之地。            To this delicious solitude.

         3                             3
未见过红的胭脂白的粉黛        No white nor red was ever seen
能比得上这碧绿美丽可爱。           So amorous as this lovely green;
那些情焰如火升腾的恋人               Fond lovers, cruel as their flame,
在这些树上刻下情人的名姓;        Cut in these trees their mistress' name.
可叹他们不知,也很少留意,        Little, alas, they know or heed,
花木之美远胜过女人的容姿!        How far these beauties hers exceed!
美丽的树哟,若让我来刻锓,        Fair trees! wheresoe'er your barks I wound
那刻下的只会使你的芳名。            No name shall but your own be found.

         4                             4
当我们跑完了热恋的路途,      When we have run our passion's heat,
这里便是爱情最好的归宿。           Love hither makes his best retreat :
那些追求世间仙姝的天神              The gods who mortal beauty chase,
终归也都在树上结束其行程;       Still in a tree did end their race.
阿波罗曾这样把达佛涅追逐,       Apollo hunted Daphne so,
最后她终于变作月桂一株;②       Only that she might laurel grow,
潘神也曾把西冷克丝紧追,           And Pan did after Syrinx speed,
追到的不是仙女,而是芦苇。③    Not as a nymph, but for a reed.

         5                            5
我在园中的生活真是奇观!      What wondrous life is this I lead!
成熟的苹果在我头顶垂悬;           Ripe apples drop about my head;
一串串香气四溢的葡萄,              The luscious clusters of the vine
向我嘴里挤入佳酿醇醪;              Upon my mouth do crush their wine;
颗颗仙桃饱含玉液琼浆,              The nectarine and curious peach
竟自觉自愿掉到我的手上;           Into my hands themselves do reach;
漫步时被瓜果花藤绊倒,              Stumbling on melons as I pass,

我也只是轻轻地扑卧芳草。       Insnared with flowers, I fall on grass.
         6                             6
这时心灵摒弃了感官的满足,    Meanwhile the mind, from pleasure less, 
深深地浸沉于它自身的幸福;       Withdraws into its happiness:
对宇宙万物,海洋般的心灵          The mind, that ocean where each kind
即刻能映现出它的同类对应;       Does straight its own resemblance find;
但心灵还能超越物质现实,          Yet it creates, transcending these,
创造出另外的海洋和陆地,          Far other worlds, and other seas;
心灵的创造终使现实消隐,          Annihilating all that's made
化为绿色的遐想溶进绿荫。          To a green thought in a green shade.

         7                             7
在轻轻滑动的源泉之边,        Here at the fountain's sliding foot,
或在树根生苔的果树跟前,          Or at some fruit-tree's mossy root,
把肉体之外壳抛弃在地,              Casting the body's vest aside,
我的灵魂渐渐溶进树枝;              My soul into the boughs does glide:
像小鸟在枝头放声歌唱,              There like a bird it sits and sings,
再用喙疏理其银色的翅膀,          Then whets and combs its silver wings;
直到羽毛泛出变幻彩光,              And, till prepared for longer flight,
准备好朝更远的地方飞翔。          Waves in its plumes the various light.

          8                            8
那乐园曾就是这般光景,        Such was that happy garden-state,
当男人还没有女人同行;              While man there walked without a mate:
有如此纯洁美好的去处,              After a place so pure and sweet,
还需要什么配偶的帮助!④           What other help could yet be meet!
可凡夫俗子怎有福消受                  But 'twas beyond a mortal's share
独自一人在这乐园漫游;              To wander solitary there:
能独处幽居生活在乐园,              Two paradises 'twere in one
那乐园就成了两个伊甸。              To live in Paradise alone.

          9                            9
高明的花匠用这些花草          How well the skillful gard'ner drew
把新的日晷设计得多好;              Of flowers and herbs this dial new;
透过浓郁的柔和阳光                     Where from above the milder sun
移动在花草的黄道带上;⑤           Does through a fragrant zodiac run;
辛勤的蜜蜂在工作之时,               And, as it works, th' industrious bee
也像世人一样计算着时日,           Computes its time as well as we.
如果不用这些花卉草叶,               How could such sweet and wholesome hours
焉能算出有益而美好的岁月?        Be reckoned but with herbs and flowers!
      (1650–1652;1681)                                               (1650–1652;1681)

__________________________
①  棕榈、橡树或桂树的枝叶做成的冠象征胜利与荣誉,此处泛指世俗间的名利。
②③  均引自希腊神话故事。
④ 《旧约·创世记》第2章第18节云:“耶和华神说,那人独居不好,我要为他造一个配偶帮助他。”
⑤  花开花谢皆有节令,花匠用各种花卉精心设计的花坛岂不正像计算时光的日晷,日影在花木上移动,岂不正像太阳在黄道带十二宫上的移动。

 
【赏析】《花园》同《羞怯的情人》一样写于1650年,于诗人死后的1681年发表,其后一些英诗选集为了将《花园》与诗人写的另外一首题为《花园——内战后作》的诗相区别,曾把此诗题目改为《花园遐思》。正如改后的诗名所示,这是一首哲理诗,是诗人在草木葱郁的花园中对人生的思索。但马维尔同其他博学多思的玄学派诗人一样,思想中常常带有强烈的感情,思想的火花对他犹如玫瑰的芬芳。所以,《花园》读来既是思考人生的哲理诗,又是歌颂自然的抒情曲。这诗一开始就批评世人只顾徒劳地争夺用草木编织的象征名利的冠冕,却忽略了大自然本身就是由花草树木交织成的花环花冠(第一节)。诗人也曾经随波逐流地在茫茫人海中追求过宁静与纯真,但他终于发现,宛如亲姊妹的“宁静”与“纯真”只存在于大自然中(第二节)。置身于翠碧影深的花木之中,诗人方悟出世间的红颜粉黛之美是那么的短促,而只有自然之美才能永恒,故花木之美远胜过女人的容姿;所以世人不该(也不能)总是沉湎于男欢女爱的热恋中,满足于短暂的美感,而应该也寄情于自然寻求永恒的爱和美。太阳神阿波罗追仙姝达涅盘,而达佛涅化为月桂,阿波罗宠月桂,终年用其枝叶饰琴箭,月桂也四季常青;牧羊神潘追美女西冷可丝,用西冷克丝变成芦苇,潘爱芦苇,取之制笛,笛声不绝,其爱永存。神祗对爱和美的追求尚在草木中永生,世人也该在大自然的宁静与纯真中完善自己对爱和美的追求(第3、第4节)。大自然也能使人得到感官美:苹果仙桃头顶坠、葡萄美酒流人嘴,可谓不亦乐乎(第5节)。但比起纯洁无邪的心灵美来,感官之美就微不足道了。心灵犹如大海,能包容宇宙诸事万物,它还能超越现实,创造出比现实更美好的事物、更纯美的境界(第6节)。灵魂一旦抛却肉体之外壳,精神一旦摆脱世俗的羁绊,就能像小鸟一样自由歌唱,其羽毛就能映照出各色光彩(领略整个大千世界),其翅膀能飞得更远更高(达到完美的精神境界)(第7节)。人的精神能这般升华,那简直就像进了伊甸乐园。亚当在伊甸园独来独往之时是何等快乐!身在乐园又能独居,那乐园之乐就是双倍快乐了。但现实毕竟是现实,凡夫俗子怎能完全超凡脱俗,绝对地“采菊东篱下,悠然见南山”呢?连亚当也因有了夏娃而偷吃禁果,被逐出乐园,贬落人间。那世人终归还是要回到现实(第8节)。但世人应该如何在现实中生活呢?诗人思考的结果是:光阴的流逝不是以时钟日历来度量的,而是以自然界花草的枯荣来计算的。人类在自身创造的社会环境中不要忘记天赋的自然环境。把现实社会与大自然揉和在一起,那人们度过的岁月就美好而有益了(第9节)。
 
(原载北京师范学院出版社1991年版《外国抒情诗赏析辞典》第504–507页


返回专栏   

© 诗生活网独立制作  版权所有 2007年1月