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◎ 露易丝•格丽克诗集07《草地》选译 (阅读2989次)



以下选自露易丝•格丽诗集《草地》
Meadowlands ( The Ecco Press, 1996)



迦拿


有什么你不知道的,我能告诉你
让你再次发抖?

连翘
在路边,在
潮湿的石头边,在堤岸上
下面生长着风信子——

那十年里我一直幸福。
你就在那儿;在某种意义上,
你总和我在一起,那房屋,花园
一直被光照亮,
不是我们拥有的天上的光
而是光的符号
它含蓄,由人世间的
某种事物转化而来
更具威力——

而这一切已经消逝,
再次被吸入冷漠的进程。那么
我们将凭什么去看?
既然那黄色的火炬已经变成
绿色的枝条?

Cana

What can I tell you that you don''''t know
that will make you tremble again?

Forsythia
by the roadside, by
wet rocks, on the embankments
underplanted with hyacinth –

For ten years I was happy.
You were there; in a sense,
you were always with me, the house, the garden
constantly lit,
not with lights as we have in the sky
but with those emblems of light
which are more powerful, being
implicitly some earthly
thing transformed –

And all of it vanished,
reabsorbed into impassive process. Then
what will we see by,
now that the yellow torches have become
green branches?



宁静夜


你牵了我的手;然后我们单独
在那威胁生命的森林里。几乎一转眼

我们就在一座房子里;诺亚
已经长大,搬走;铁线莲在十年后
突然开了花,洁白。

超过了世间万物
我爱这些夜晚,当我们在一起,
这些宁静的夏夜,此刻天空仍然明亮。

就这样珀涅罗珀[1]牵了奥德修斯的手,
不是要把他拉回,而是要把这种宁静
印在他的记忆里:

从这时起,你穿越的那种寂静
其实是我的声音在追逐你。

[1注]
珀涅罗珀,奥德修斯之妻,忒勒马科斯之母,在奥德修斯外出的十年里,靠织布拖延求爱者,等待丈夫归来。

QUIET EVENING

You take my hand; then we’re alone
in the life-threatening forest. Almost immediately

we’re in a house; Noah’s
grown and moved away; the clematis after ten years
suddenly flowers white.

More than anything in the world
I love these evenings when we’re together,
the quiet evenings in summer, the sky still light at this hour.

So Penelope took the hand of Odysseus,
not to hold him back but to impress
this peace on his memory:

from this point on, the silence through which you move
is my voice pursing you.



国王的寓言


那伟大的国王眼望前方
看到的不是命运,而只是
黎明闪烁,在
那无名的岛上:作为一个国王
他思考势在必行之事——最好
不再思考方向,最好
在耀眼的水上
继续向前。不管怎么说,
所谓命运,只是一个策略:忽略
历史,及其伦理的
困境,一种方式:认定
现在,决定是在这儿
做出的,作为必要的
联系:在过去(国王的形象
作为一位年轻王子)和辉煌的未来(女奴们的
形象)。无论什么
在前面,为什么必须
如此盲目?谁能已经知道
那不是通常的太阳
而是燃烧着,升起在一个
即将不存在的世界之上?

PARABLE OF THE KING

The great king looking ahead
saw not fate but simply
dawn glittering over
the unknown island: as a king
he thought in the imperative—best
not to reconsider direction, best
to keep going forward
over the radiant water. Anyway,
what is fate but a strategy for ignoring
history, with its moral
dilemmas, a way of regarding
the present, where decisions
are made, as the necessary
link between the past (images of the king
as a young prince) and the glorious future (images
of slave girls). Whatever
it was ahead, why did it have to be
so blinding? Who could have know
that wasn’t the usual sun
but flames rising over a world
about to become extinct?



伊萨卡[1]


被爱的人不需要
活着。被爱的人
活在脑子里。织机架
是留给追求者的,绷起来
像一张竖琴,带着裹尸布的白纱线。

他曾是两个人。
他曾是身体和声音,一个活生生的男人
不经意的磁力,后来是
被织机上那女人定型的
那场梦与形象,慢慢展现;
她坐在客厅,那里
塞满了心智止于表面的男人。

当你可怜
那被骗的海洋,它曾
企图将他永远掠走,
而掳去的不过是前者,
那实体的丈夫,你必须
可怜这些男人:他们不知道
自己在看着什么;
他们不知道若一个人按这样的方式爱,
尸衣就变成了婚纱。[2]
(得一忘二 译)

[1注]
伊萨卡(Ithaca):希腊神话中奥德修斯的故乡,希腊西部爱奥尼亚海中的一个群岛。

[2评论摘译]
在《伊萨卡》这首诗中,说话人想像两个版本的奥德修斯:一个指“那个身体”,或者她丈夫的实际的自我,另一个指“那个声音”,一个想像的自我,或者说是与“观念”和“梦想”的抽象王国相联系的语言建构,因此在珀涅罗珀的关照之下进行。她再创造了丈夫的声音来对抗实际损失,即“被织机上那女人定型的/ 形象”(M 12)。如果说珀涅罗珀在织布机上再创造了丈夫的声音,我们也必须理解:当珀涅罗珀将一块为奥德修斯之父拉厄耳忒斯(Laertes)织的裹尸布织了又拆,格丽克已经通过一个文本将“声音”的再现与悲痛的劳作联系起来。荷马将其与死者的葬礼相联系,但珀涅罗珀的决定也与她一再推迟接受求爱者相联系。在《伊萨卡》这首诗中,珀涅罗珀在“织布机”上建构的“声音”表明格丽克对想像而非实际的强调。珀涅罗珀仍然相信:大海只是夺去了她“实际的丈夫”,与“活在脑子里”的奥德修斯的高贵形象相比,一个不重要的枝节。//这首诗的结尾,裹尸布变形为婚纱,表明说话人悲痛的动作使她在感情的意义上与丈夫相连接,将抛弃改写为结婚,这又一次显示了奥德赛的——也是格丽克的——对基于损失的欲望的看法。(《露易丝•格丽克诗歌:主题研究》第 240页)

ITHACA

The beloved doesn''''t
need to live. The beloved
lives in the head. The loom
is for the suitors, strung up
like a harp with white shroud-thread.

He was two people.
He was the body and voice, the easy
magnetism of a living man, and then
the unfolding dream or image
shaped by the woman working the loom,
sitting there in a hall filled
with literal-minded men.

As you pity
the deceived sea that tried
to take him away forever
and took only the first,
the actual husband, you must
pity these men: they don''''t know
what they''''re looking at;
they don''''t know that when one loves this way
the shroud becomes a wedding dress.



人质的寓言


希腊人正坐在海滩上
想着战争结束后干什么。没有一个
想回家,回到
那个瘦骨嶙峋的小岛;每个人都想再多一点儿
特洛伊的一切,多一点儿
边缘之处的生活,感觉每天
都塞满了惊奇。但怎么解释这些
给在家里的人听?对于他们来说
投身战争是一个可信的
不在家的藉口,而
探测一个人找乐儿的能力
却不是。好吧,这一点可以
以后再面对;这些
是擅长行动的男人,情愿把洞察力
留给女人和孩子。
在大太阳下反复思索着这些事情,为
前臂上一股新的力量而高兴,那儿
似乎比他们在家时更加金黄,有些人
开始有点儿想家,
想妻子,想看看
这场战争让她们变老了没有。有些人
感到稍微不安:难道战争
只不过是一场男人版的化妆打扮?
一个游戏,意在逃避
深层的精神问题?唉,
但并非只是战争。世界已经开始
向他们呼唤,一场歌剧将以战争的
喧哗的和弦开场,以赛壬们漂浮的咏叹调结束。
此刻,在那海滩上,讨论着各种各样的
回家的时间表,没有一个相信
将会花上十年才回到伊萨卡;
没有人预见到十年里无法解决的困境——噢,无法回答的
对人心的折磨:怎样才能
把世界的美划分成可以接受的
和不可以接受的爱!在特洛伊的海滩上,
希腊人怎么能知道
他们已经是人质:谁曾经
耽搁了旅程,谁就是
已经被迷惑;他们怎么能知道
在他们为数不多的人之中
有些将永远被追求快乐的梦想扣留,
有些被睡梦,有些被音乐扣留?

PARABLE OF THE HOSTAGES

The Greeks are sitting on the beach
wondering what to do when the war ends. No one
wants to go home, back
to that bony island; everyone wants a little more
of what there is in Troy, more
life on the edge, that sense of every day as being
packed with surprises. But how to explain this
to the ones at home to whom
fighting a war is a plausible
excuse for absence, whereas
exploring one’s capacity for diversion
is not. Well, this can be faced
later; these
are men of action, ready to leave
insight to the women and children.
Thinking things over in the hot sun, pleased
by a new strength in their forearms, which seem
more golden than they did at home, some
begin to miss their families a little,
to miss their wives, to want to see
if the war has aged them. And a few grow
slightly uneasy: what if war
is just a male version of dressing up,
a game devised to avoid
profound spiritual questions? Ah,
but it wasn’t only the war. The world had begun
calling them, an opera beginning with the war’s
loud chords and ending with the floating aria of the sirens.
There on the beach, discussing the various
timetables for getting home, no one believed
it could take ten years to get back to Ithaca;
no one foresaw that decade of insoluble dilemmas—oh unanswerable
affliction of the human heart: how to divide
the world’s beauty into acceptable
and unacceptable loves! On the shores of Troy,
how could the Greeks know
they were hostages already: who once
delays the journey is
already enthralled; how could they know
that of their small number
some would be held forever by the dreams of pleasure,
some by sleep, some by music?



忒勒马科斯的奇想


有时候我奇怪父亲
在海岛上的那些年:为什么
他对女人们
那么有吸引力?他那时落泊不堪,我猜测
他该绝望。我相信
女人们喜欢看到一个男人
仍然完整,仍然挺立,但
即将垮掉:这样的
崩溃总能唤起
她们的激情。我想像他们
完全赤裸地
过着整天的生活。那一定让他
眼花缭乱,我想,那些女人
比他年轻那么多
明显地为他发狂,情愿
做他渴望的任何事情。他
遇到如此遂他心愿的情形,过了
这么多年
却不被质疑,不受阻碍,
这是幸运吗?一个人
必须相信自己
完全善良,或是可敬。我
猜测,最终,要么
一个人变成怪物,要么
让爱他的人看清品性。我从来没有
渴望父亲的生活,
我也没有一点概念
关于他当时
为了活命所付出的代价。如果相信
他是被勾引到她们身边,并因此留下来
去看她们是谁,这样想就不那么危险。但是,我想,
作为一个富于想象力的的男人,
在某种程度上,他
变成了她们那样的人。

Telemachus'''' Fantasy

Sometimes I wonder about my father’s
years on those islands: why
was he so attractive
to women? He was in straits then, I suppose
desperate. I believe
women like to see a man
still whole, still standing, but
about to go to pieces: such
disintegration reminds them
of passion. I think of them as living
their whole lives
completely undressed. It must have
dazzled him, I think, women
so much younger than
he was evidently
wild for him, ready
to do anything he wished. Is it
fortunate to encounter circumstances
so responsive to one’s own will, to live
so many years
unquestioned, unthwarted? One
would have to believe oneself
entirely good or worthy. I
suppose in time either
one becomes a monster or
the beloved sees what one is. I never
wish for my father’s life
nor have I any idea
what he sacrificed
to survive that moment. Less dangerous
to believe he was drawn to them
and so stayed
to see who they were. I think, though,
as an imaginative man
to some extent he
became who they were.



忠诚的寓言


此刻,在曦光里,宫殿的台阶上
国王请求王后的宽恕

他并不是
表里不一;此刻他已尽力
做到诚实;难道还有别的方式
诚实面对自己吗?

王后
遮着脸,某种程度上
她由阴影支撑着。她哭泣
为她的过去;当一个人生命中有了秘密,

这个人的眼泪就再也无法解释。

但国王仍然乐意承担
王后的悲痛:他的
宽大的心胸,
在痛苦中如在欢乐中。

你可知道
宽恕意味着什么?它意味着
这世界已经犯罪,这世界
必须被宽恕——

Parable of Faith

Now, in twilight, on the palace steps
the king asks forgiveness of his lady.

He is not
duplicitous; he has tried to be
true to the moment; is there another way of being
true to the self?

The lady
hides her face, somewhat
assisted by the shadows. She weeps
for her past; when one has a secret life,

one''''s tears are never explained.

Yet gladly would the king bear
the grief of his lady: his
is the generous heart,
in pain as in joy.

Do you know
what forgiveness mean? it mean
the world has sinned, the world
must be pardoned –



喀耳刻[1]的神力


我从没有把任何人变成猪。
有些人就是猪;我把他们
变成猪的样子。

我厌恶你们的世界
它让外表掩饰内心。你的随从们并不是坏人;
没有规矩的生活
让他们变成这样。作为猪,

它们在我和女伴们
照料之下
马上就温和了。

于是我倒念咒符,让你见识我的善意
还有我的神力。我看得出来

我们在这儿能够幸福,
正如男男女女
在欲求很简单的时候。同时,

我预见到你要离去,
由于我的帮助,你们敢于迎战
凶猛咆哮的大海。你认为

几滴泪水就让我心烦意乱?我的朋友,
每个女巫在内心里
都是实用主义者;没有谁能看到本质
而不面对局限。如果我只是想留下你

我可以把你当作囚犯扣留。

[1注]
喀耳刻(Circe, 或Kirke):希腊神话中太阳神赫利俄斯和海洋女神珀耳塞的女儿,居住在爱伊亚(Aeaea)岛上,能用草药把人变为牲畜。荷马史诗《奥德赛》中,奥德修斯返家路经海岛,随行人员被变为猪,奥德修斯由于使用了赫耳墨斯给的魔力草(moly),得以抵挡她的魔法,并迫使她释放随从。两人在岛上共同生活一年,后协助奥德修斯返乡。古希腊赫西俄德《神谱》记载:“许佩里翁之子赫利俄斯的女儿喀耳刻,钟情于意志坚定的奥德修斯,给他生下阿格里俄斯和无可指责的、强大有力的拉丁努斯。”(56)

Circe''''s Power


I never turned anyone into a pig.
Some people are pigs; I make them
look like pigs.

I''''m sick of your world
that lets the outside disguise the inside. Your men weren''''t bad men;
undisciplined life
did that to them. As pigs,

under the care of
me and my ladies, they
sweetened right up.

Then I reversed the spell, showing you my goodness
as well as my power. I saw

we could be happy here,
as men and women are
when their needs are simple. In the same breath,

I foresaw your departure,
your men with my help braving
the crying and pounding sea. You think

a few tears upset me? My friend,
every sorceress is
a pragmatist at heart; nobody sees essence who can''''t
face limitation. If I wanted only to hold you

I could hold you prisoner.



喀耳刻的悲伤


最终,我让自己
为你妻子所知,正如
神会做的那样,在她自己屋里,在
伊萨卡,只有声音
而没有身形:她
停止了织布,她的头
先转向右,再转向左
虽然,当然不可能
顺着声音找到任何
目标:但我猜想
当她回到她的纺布机旁
她心里已经知道。等到
你们再见面时,请告诉她
这就是神说再见的方式:
如果我一直在她的脑子里
我也就一直在你的生活中。

Circe''''s Grief

In the end, I made myself
Known to your wife as
A god would, in her own house, in
Ithaca, a voice
Without a body: she
Paused in her weaving, her head turning
First to the right, then left
Though it was hopeless of course
To trace that sound to any
Objective source: I doubt
She will return to her loom
With what she knows now. When
You see her again, tell her
This is how a god says goodbye:
If I am in her head forever
I am in your life forever.



喀耳刻的痛苦


我悲痛,悔恨
爱你那么多年,无论
你在还是不在,悔恨
那法律,那召唤
禁止我留下你,那大海
一片玻璃,那被太阳漂白的
希腊船只的美:我怎么
会有魔法,如果
我没有发愿
把你变形:就如
你爱我的身体,
就如你发现那儿
我们的激情超乎
其他一切馈赠,在那独一的时刻
超乎荣誉和希望,超乎
忠诚,以那结合之名
我拒绝你
这类给予你妻子的感情
就如愿意让你
与她一起安度时光,我拒绝
再次与你同睡
如果我不能将你拥有。

Circe''''s Torment

I regret bitterly
The years of loving you in both
Your presence and absence, regret
The law, the vocation
That forbid me to keep you, the sea
A sheet of glass, the sun-bleached
Beauty of the Greek ships: how
Could I have power if
I had no wish
To transform you: as
You loved my body,
As you found there
Passion we held above
All other gifts, in that single moment
Over honor and hope, over
Loyalty, in the name of that bond
I refuse you
Such feeling for your wife
As will let you
Rest with her, I refuse you
Sleep again
If I cannot have you.



赛壬


当我坠入爱,我就犯了罪。
以前我是个女招待。

我不想和你一起去芝加哥。
我想和你结婚,我想
让你的妻子受折磨。

我想让她的生活像一出戏
戏里的所有角色都悲伤不已。

一个善良的人
会这样想吗?我称得上

勇气可嘉——

我坐在你家门廊的黑暗里。
对我来说一切都清楚:
如果你妻子不让你走
那就证明她不爱你。
如果她爱你
难道她会不想让你幸福?

如今我想
如果当时我少一些感觉,我就会
是一个更好的人。我本来
是个不错的女招待。
我能端八份饮料。

我曾经给你讲我的梦。
昨天夜里我看到一个女人坐在黑暗的公汽里——
梦中,她在哭泣,她乘坐的公汽
正在开走。一只手
她挥动着;另一只手抚摸
一个盛满了婴儿的鸡蛋托。

那个梦并不能挽救那位女士。

Siren

I became a criminal when I fell in love.
Before that I was a waitress.

I didn''''t want to go to Chicago with you.
I wanted to marry you, I wanted
Your wife to suffer.

I wanted her life to be like a play
In which all the parts are sad parts.

Does a good person
Think this way? I deserve

Credit for my courage--

I sat in the dark on your front porch.
Everything was clear to me:
If your wife wouldn''''t let you go
That proved she didn''''t love you.
If she loved you
Wouldn''''t she want you to be happy?

I think now
If I felt less I would be
A better person. I was
A good waitress.
I could carry eight drinks.

I used to tell you my dreams.
Last night I saw a woman sitting in a dark bus--
In the dream, she''''s weeping, the bus she''''s on
Is moving away. With one hand
She''''s waving; the other strokes
An egg carton full of babies.

The dream doesn''''t rescue the maiden.


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