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◎ 从东方视角谈和平文学与和平文化 (阅读3883次)




  Peace Through Literature and Culture---An Oriental Perspective



--在上海《第四届国际亚洲研究学者大会》“文学与艺术”专题研讨会上的发言
            (2005年8月21日)


[英文演示提纲]

1. A brief analysis of terrorism vs. peace(恐怖主义与世界和平简述)
2. A brief review of occidental revelation on peace(西方和平宗教思想回顾)
2.1. Judaism(犹太教)
2.2. Christianity(基督教)
2.3.Islam(伊斯兰教)
3.An oriental perspective on peace(东方和平宗教思想述评)
3.1. Confucianism(儒家)
3.2. Taoism(道家)
3.3. Buddhism(佛教)
4. The integrated power of literature, arts and culture on peace
(和平文学、艺术、文化的综合作用)
4.1. Literature, esp. poetry on peace(文学:诗歌)
4.2. Arts, mainly painting and music on peace(艺术:绘画、音乐)
4.3. Power of culture on peace(文化)
5. Conclusion(结论)
Appendices(附录:诗文绘画)

[因英文原稿篇幅较长,仅回译摘要,以飨读者。阅读全文,
敬请登陆联合国教科文组织网站《维生系统百科全书》
[http://www.eolss.net/] UNESCO-Encyclopedia of Life Support System]


[摘要]

  二十一世纪伊始,世界和平遭受恐怖主义的打击,新的地区武装冲突日益加剧。继
2001年美国遭“9.11”恐怖袭击以来,全球范围内的暴力冲突不断---从阿富汗到伊拉
克,从以色列到巴勒斯坦,从车臣到北奥塞梯,以及上个月伦敦地铁发生的连环爆炸案
---导致大量无辜平民伤亡。如今世界和平精神正在消退,或者说几乎到了衰退的边缘。

  国际社会对于今日之局势不愿也不能置之不理,各国都应该群策群力,寻找一种绝
非治标而是治里的方法。只有全面唤起仁慈关怀的人性意识,自觉地恢复人类文明博爱
的精神,才能获得世界各国人民发自内心的支持,共同消除各地区的冲突,持久地维护
世界的和平。犹为重要的是,全球的和平必须立足于东西方的现实视角加以重新审视。
毋庸置疑,东西方文明共同信奉一条和平黄金法则:“己所不欲,勿施于人”。任何试
图解决这一棘手问题的举动都应先将文化纳入其中,并加以充分考虑。

  任何“文明战争”、单边主义、政治排斥的危险理念只能带来绝望的结局。恐怖主
义就是这种绝望的过急行为表现,绝望有时就直接导致自杀或自杀性爆炸。今日伊斯兰
极端分子的出现就是政治排斥的结果。2003-2005年间发生的一系列事件表明单靠军事
武力解决不了问题,只能在暴力冲突地区播撒仇恨的种子,加剧循环报复与冲突对抗。
因此,我们主张进行全球性的消除暴力倾向的和平文化教育,急需通过各民族的文学艺
术桥梁,通过电影、电视、录像以及全球互联网平台,共同推动世界和平的进程。

  和平不仅仅消除暴力,而是要维护公正的秩序。真正的和平不只是意味着远离战
火、远离争端、和睦安宁。世界和平是一种理想化的未来---各国人民和睦相处,幸福
自由。世界各国宗教的基本教义均包容这一和平的理念。和平“黄金法则”在犹太教、
基督教、伊斯兰教、儒家、道家、佛教思想中都能找到直接的表达。伊斯兰教教义本身
也赋含丰富的和平启示,伊斯兰在阿拉伯词源上表示“供奉主的旨意”,其词根
“silm”原义为“和平”。而中国文化中的和平概念不仅是一种哲学概念,更是一种心
灵的境界或人格的精神。

  文学、艺术与文化具有神奇的心理疗伤作用,它通过文字、绘画、音乐媒介,理解
与关爱人类的苦难。例如,一首诗能够深入一个人的灵魂,在世界各个民族、不同宗教
信仰群体之间,构建信任的桥梁,彼此理解、尊重与爱护。和平主题的诗歌更是冲突的双方加强沟通,表达现实中的痛苦、希望与渴望和平的最佳方式;它必将促进人们相互
尊重、化解敌对的情绪,创造性地重建信心、信任与爱心。和平文化能够创造、调和与
传达各个民族的文化价值观、道德观、传统习俗、知识情感、艺术情趣等等;和平文化
更能唤起民众消除战争的根基,积极争取相互尊重、平等、公正、受教育等等人权尊严。

  文章最后的结论为:世界和平不是简单地靠政治家签订条约,或靠商界领袖建立经
济合作就能达到的。要想真正获得持久的和平唯有通过长期的文学、艺术、文化教育,
在最普通的民众之间、在他们生命的最深处,建立彼此信任的纽带。各国政府在主流文化上应该大力提倡“和平黄金法则”,并将之纳入各个民族文化价值永恒的内核。其
次,也绝不能忽视非主流文化或亚文化教育的重要性,尤其是在不发达国家或发展中国家。因此,我们重申不同文化之间彼此尊重、相互了解,通过文学与艺术形式,面向青
年人开展长期的和平教育,最广泛地培育一种和平文化,在全球范围内最终消除暴力与
恐怖主义。


[SUMMARY]

In the initial years of the twenty-first century, the world peace has
been broken by the emergence of terrorism and new threats of armed
conflict in various regions around the globe. Since the September 11,
2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, there has been an ongoing
incidence of violence and bombings worldwide, from Afghanistan to Iraq,
from Israel to Palestine, from Chechnya to Ossetia, and in London last
month, which have killed large numbers of ordinary citizens. The spirit
of the world peace today is in retreat and regression, almost a kind of
meltdown.

The international community cannot and must not turn a blind eye to the
current tendency. All should join in the search for the kind of
approach that will constitute not symptomatic treatment but fundamental
cure. No efforts will gain the wholehearted support of people or
succeed in bringing about lasting stability and peace without a spirit
of self-mastery based on an acute awareness of the humanity of others,
the very essence of civilization. More importantly, the global
questions of peace must be rethought from the occidental and oriental
perspectives of the reality. Undoubtedly, they endorse a golden rule of
world peace: “Treat others as you want to be treated”. Any attempt to
deal with these large problems should take such cultures into full
consideration.

The dangerous concepts of a “war of civilizations”, unilateralism and
political exclusion create desperate situations. Terrorism is an
extreme act of desperation, and desperation is one of those emotions
that sometimes lead to suicide or suicide bombers. Modern Islamic
extremism is a result of political exclusion. Recent events from 2003
to 2005 make it clear that an exclusive reliance on military force will
not bring about a fundamental solution, but only plant further seeds of
hatred in regions already torn by strife and deepen the cycles of
hatred and revenge or entrench antagonisms. We therefore strongly
believe in the value of global peace education and the much needed
development of a Culture of Peace, through bridges of literatures and
arts among nations, through television, films and videos, as well as a
responsible global media through internet, to counteract the global
culture of violence.

Peace is not merely the absence of violence, it is the presence of
justice. True peace does not solely mean freedom from war, public
security, from disagreement or quarrels, harmony, concord, serenity.
World peace is a future ideal of freedom, peace and happiness among and
within all nations. The notion of peace is embodied in the fundamental
principles of religions worldwide. Some version of “The Golden Rule of
Peace" finds explicit expression in Judaism, Christianity, Islam,
Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, Islam itself embodies rich
revelations on peace. Even the word Islam is an Arabic word that means
“submission” to the will of God. It means “peace” since its root
silm has the meaning of being at peace. The Chinese concept of peace is
not only a kind of philosophy, but also a kind of soul state or
spiritual personality.

Literatures, arts and culture have the magic function of healing
through words, painting or music of comprehension, care and love. More
definitely, a poem has a marvelous ability to delve deeply into one's
consciousness and to create bridges of trust, understanding, respect
and even love, between people, ethnic groups and nations. Peace poetry
has the wonderful ability to understand both sides and to present both
sides in all its reality, pain, hope and yearning for peace. It can
thus lead to mutual recognition and reconciliation, and to the creative
building of confidence, trust and love. A peace culture can create,
mediate and transfer values, ideas, ethics, information, customs,
traditions, interests, emotions, developments, arts and intellectual
refinement, between people, generations, nations, and civilizations. A
peace culture calls for an attack on the sources of war, by taking
action against injustice and disparities, in favor of a right to
education and respect for human dignity and rights.

Finally, the paper makes such a conclusion: world peace is not
something that can be realized simply by politicians signing treaties,
or by business leaders creating economic co-operations. True and
lasting peace will be realized through literatures, arts and culture,
by establishing strong links of trust between people at the deepest
level, in the depths of their lives. As a mainstream culture, the
governments of all the nations should advocate such a golden rule as
the core ethical value for eons and throughout all cultures.
Furthermore, nongovernmental culture or subculture education should not
be neglected, which would not play less important role in
underdeveloped or developing countries. Therefore, we must work with
renewed determination for mutual respect and understanding, to foster
the culture of peace by bridging between different cultures, and to
denounce terrorism and violence around the world by a long-term peace
education facing young people through literatures and arts in the
broadest sense.

(Published on UNESCO-Encyclopedia of Life Support System, http://www.eolss.net/


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